Pedagogical knowledge and ability draws on content knowledge as well as other sources of knowledge but in the process transforms it, since it is understood in relation to knowledge of the learners, the curriculum, the teaching context and to teaching methods. For example as part of their content knowledge teachers might be expected to know the difference between tense and aspect in English or to know the difference between stative and non-stative verbs.
Pedagogical knowledge and ability refers to what teachers know about how to communicate the difference between tense and aspect or between stative and non-stative verbs to learners.
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Andrews discusses a teacher who is well grounded in content knowledge e. And then I go home and think about it. I finish the worksheets with them and they know how to rewrite the sentences. The distinction between content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge and ability has also been framed in terms of the distinction between declarative knowledge knowledge about something and procedural knowledge the ability to do things , which Pasternak and Bailey However, in a teacher education course the difference between content or declarative knowledge and pedagogical or procedural knowledge depends on how content is presented.
For example a grammar course or a course on second language learning could be framed either as content knowledge or as pedagogical knowledge and textbooks on topics such as these vary according to which approach to the subject they take. Ortega, ; Spada and Lightbown, This includes the ability to maintain communication in English that is fluent, accurate and comprehensible and more importantly, the extent to which the teacher can use English as a medium to teach English, particularly teachers who may be at Level A2 or B1 on the CEFR.
What kind of English is this? Elder was one of the first to explore this question in depth drawing on needs analysis conducted by Viete Effective classroom delivery necessitates command of linguistic features. Directives are one such feature and are crucial in establishing classroom procedures and learning tasks. A range of questioning techniques is also essential if the teacher is able to monitor learning understanding.
The teacher will also need to use rhetorical signaling devices and simplification strategies to communicate specialist areas of knowledge and render them comprehensible to learners Elder, However, the ability to use English in a way that supports the learning of English documented below is something that has to be mastered by both NESST teachers as well as teachers whose native language is English, and can be regarded as a variety of English for specific purposes. Native-speakers of English often find that they have to work hard to be able to use English effectively in this way.
For others they can be the focus of explicit instruction. The bias towards native-speakers is seen in the curriculum of many certificate courses for English teachers. Hobbs notes that initial teacher training courses, such as the CELTA and the Cert-ESOL offered in large numbers world wide and serving as an initial preparation for teaching, generally assume that the participant is a native-speaker of English: A native-speaker teacher on a certificate course cited in Hobbs Drawing on the concept of decision-making Shavelson, I would suggest that these aspects of language knowledge and ability can be illustrated in relation to three phases of teaching: This phase refers to decisions teachers make prior to teaching a lesson.
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Setting goals for a lesson. Using a written as opposed to a mental lesson plan. Limitations in language proficiency may mean that the teacher is dependent upon a detailed written lesson plan that identifies specific lexical items, structures and other language features, thus restricting the potential scope of the lesson, as opposed to the use of a mental lesson plan that allows for more unpredictable language to emerge during a lesson. Choosing a text or other form of input to a planned activity based on the linguistic features of a text.
Understanding the potential difficulty for learners of a linguistic feature of a planned activity or text that will form the basis for an activity. Modifying or adapting language content in a textbook to make it more suitable for his or her learners.
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Simplifying authentic texts by reducing them in length, and simplifying vocabulary and rephrasing complex structures. Designing and selecting activities that include a focus on specific aspects of language production or communication, such as a role-play task that is designed to practise turn-taking. In general we can say that a teacher with limited language knowledge and discourse skills is restricted in the choice of activities available to him or her and may not be able to move beyond the prescribed syllabus, as would be the case if I were to teach French or Indonesian.
Like most methods they offer teachers a package of routines and procedures that can be implemented without making undue demands on their language ability.
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Williams and Burden offered the following explanation for the dominance Audiolingualism achieved and for the fact that at the time of writing continued to be used in many countries despite attempts to replace it with more communicative teaching methods:. There are a number of possible practical reasons for this. In many countries teachers are not provided with a professional training; in some contexts the prerequisite for teaching is a primary education.
It can be quicker and easier to teach teachers to use the steps involved in an audiolingual approach: Teachers can also follow the steps provided in their coursebook in a fairly mechanical way. Teachers who lack confidence tend to be less frightened of these techniques, whereas allowing language to develop through meaningful interaction in the classroom can be considerably daunting, and requires teachers with some professional knowledge.
An audiolingual methodology can also be used by teachers whose own knowledge of the target language is limited Once the teacher enters the classroom and starts a lesson, language knowledge and ability also plays a crucial role in managing and directing the progress of the lesson as described by Elder Bernstein suggested that in the classroom, language has two primary functions: Language also plays a central role in both scaffolded learning and dialogic learning.
Sociocultural theory views language learning as a social process of guided participation, mediated through the guidance of a more knowledgeable other scaffolding. Through repeated participation in a variety of joint activities, the novice gradually develops new knowledge and skills.
In the classroom, scaffolding is the process of interaction between two or more people as they carry out a classroom activity, and where one person e. During the process, discourse is jointly created through the process of assisted or mediated performance, and interaction proceeds as a kind of joint problem-solving between teacher and student. Throughout, the teacher provides opportunities for noticing how language is used, experimenting with language use, practising new modes of discourse and restructuring existing language knowledge. Language proficiency can be presumed to play an important role in determining the effectiveness with which the teacher can provide support for scaffolded learning of this kind.
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Language use is also crucial in facilitating a mode of teaching referred to as dialogic talk, which Alexander The following are examples of classroom acts and activities reflecting both regulative and instructional aspects of teaching as well as scaffolded instruction and that require specialized discourse skills for their effective realization:. Using transition words and phrases to mark the closure of one activity and start of another activity. The remaining five, with limited proficiency in the language they were teaching, attempted the first four aspects of teaching to varying degrees.
However, they were unable to provide rich language input at a natural pace and showed little ability to respond to questions about the target language or culture H. Teachers generally adapt the complexity of their language to facilitate understanding and communication with their learners, hence when teaching low-proficiency learners there may be less opportunities to improvise or engage in dialogic talk than with higher proficiency learners observation from K. Teachers may also make use of their knowledge of language in decisions they may make after teaching, although these decisions need not necessarily be made in their teaching language.
Reflecting on adjustments the teacher may have made to the lesson based on language difficulties students encountered during the lesson. However, professional development activities likewise need not necessarily be limited to those conducted in their teaching language Freeman, personal communication.
What constitutes the threshold of communicative ability that a teacher has to reach in order to be able to use English or another language effectively as a medium of instruction? And does this require a special kind of proficiency different from that which a second language user of English would need for other purposes?
As Elder comments If a general level of language proficiency was sufficient to equip teachers with the necessary language resources to be able to teach effectively through English, benchmarks described in the CEFR or in the frameworks such as the Cambridge proficiency exams would be sufficient in designing the language component of teacher training programmes as well as for establishing standards for teachers. This was the assumption behind a large-scale assessment project in Vietnam.
As a consequence of the expanded role of English in Vietnam, benchmarks referenced to the Common European Framework as well as other sources have been established for teachers, students, and government workers.
Here are just a few ideas:. These study methods can provide a refreshing change to your regular study schedule. However, most of these study methods have one major problem — you need to have a fairly large vocabulary to be able to use them effectively.
While students with a limited vocabulary can have success with these methods, most will soon get sick of constantly pausing the movie, stopping the game, or putting down the newspaper to look up the meaning of unfamiliar words. A much better learning strategy is to combine these different methods of study with traditional learning methods.
For example, you could spend one hour a day using an app to study new vocabulary, then spend the next hour watching a foreign language movie to see how many of those new words you can recognize. This strategy will keep you refreshed and motivated, and before long, your goal of fluency will be within reach. With over 50 languages available in more than language pairs, Clozemaster is a fantastic choice for app-based vocabulary learning.
Its intuitive cloze testing method allows you to study new words in context, and the spaced repetition learning system helps you retain a large number of words in a short amount of time. I was ready to quit but noticed … Translation. I covered the English sentence and used the game to learn how to say it in English. That has to be put in the alg: to toggle English text on-off.
I need to see synonims after i answered the text by clicking on Multiple choice list. Interesting article. I believe that learning vocabulary is all about getting a feel for the sound of a word. If you know the pronunciation, you can imagine a word internally. That helps immensely. Your email address will not be published. Ready to get fluent faster? Try Clozemaster — over 50 languages and thousands of sentences to help you take your language learning to the next level.
Without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed. Grammar vs. The larger your vocabulary, the easier it becomes to learn new words. Increasing your vocabulary lets you focus on more challenging aspects of language. Proficiency in all aspects of language learning This example highlights one of the most overlooked reasons for learning lots of vocabulary — it lets you focus on other aspects of language learning.
A large vocabulary lets you study in different, more interesting ways. Other ways of studying a language Fortunately, there are many other ways of studying a foreign language that are both effective and enjoyable. Here are just a few ideas: Reading foreign language newspapers and books Watching tv programs, movies and YouTube clips from other countries Listening to foreign language music and podcasts Playing video games in a foreign language Installing a foreign language OS on your computer or smartphone Using language study apps Using social media in a foreign language These study methods can provide a refreshing change to your regular study schedule.
Still need a large vocabulary However, most of these study methods have one major problem — you need to have a fairly large vocabulary to be able to use them effectively. Leave a Comment Cancel Reply Your email address will not be published.
- 2. The larger your vocabulary, the easier it becomes to learn new words.?
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