Bions Sources: The shaping of his paradigms


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Abstract en In constructing his theory Bion drew on a number of symbolic matrices: psychoanalysis, philosophy, mathematics, literature, aesthetics. Bion y lo sublime. Bion e il sublime: radici di un paradigm estetico Nel costruire la sua teoria, Bion ha tratto spunto da numerose matrici simboliche: psicoanalisi, filosofia, matematica, letteratura, estetica.

Citing Literature. Volume 95 , Issue 6 December Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure.

countertransference: obstruction or evidence

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Preferred contact method Email Text message. When will my order be ready to collect? Following the initial email, you will be contacted by the shop to confirm that your item is available for collection. Call us on or send us an email at. Unfortunately there has been a problem with your order. Experimental and control worms were fed with liver during the entire procedure, and the liver odor would be everywhere in the dish — this means the worms did not have to rely on the rough texture to know that food was somewhere in the vicinity, and both the trained and control groups could have developed positive associations to the smell of the liver.

As can be seen in supplementary material Movie 1, the behavior does not resemble a simple reflex modification but rather the whole environment that makes trained worms initiate feeding sooner. We cannot completely rule out the possibility that the modifications in the PNS contribute to change in feeding latency. However, it should be noted that in order for receptor sensitivity to a particular stimulus to change after training, a kind of learning had to take place — the system as a whole including learning, appropriate modification of the PNS and facilitation of re-training phases implements an association between the presence of liver and the salient predictor of its presence, the rough surface, out of many other possible sensory modes that could have become more or less sensitized.

Thus, this system would provide a novel model in which to examine the interactions between a mature PNS modified by specific experiences and learning in a newly developed brain Inoue et al. Our results, obtained using a highly sensitive, objective, quantitative analysis system, support previous findings of Best and Rubenstein Best and Rubinstein, a that planarians are capable of acquiring a relatively complex, explicit-like memories of environmental familiarity.

Moreover, this memory survives long enough to allow full regeneration after amputation. Remarkably, headless fragments, regenerated from original environment-familiarized worms, display significant environmental familiarity in a savings paradigm. This simple and promising approach opens great opportunities for the use of planarians as model organisms for modern research of learning and memory.

Importantly, planarians are the only molecularly tractable system in which memory and brain regeneration can be studied in the same animal.

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This is a crucial advantage and allows the investigation of innovative hypotheses as to the role of epigenetic and self-organization mechanisms in memory encoding, brain development and brain regeneration. We thank Punita Koustubhan for general laboratory assistance; Junji Morokuma and Wendy Beane for advice and help with the planarian model system; Douglas Blackiston and Robert Cook for many helpful discussions about behavioral paradigms; Durwood Marshall, Dany S. Adams and Laura Vandenberg for assistance with statistics; Douglas Blackiston, Michael Romero and Philip Starks for comments on early versions of the manuscript; and Ethan Golden for fabrication of the rough-textured Petri dishes.


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McConnell, two pioneers of learning and memory in planarians. This research was funded by the G.

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An automated training paradigm reveals long-term memory in planarians and its persistence through head regeneration. Tal Shomrat , Michael Levin. Tal Shomrat. SUMMARY Planarian flatworms are a popular system for research into the molecular mechanisms that enable these complex organisms to regenerate their entire body, including the brain.

Handling and maintenance during the experiment In addition to suppressing fission, keeping the worms in darkness has been reported to enhance negative phototaxis McConnell, an important feature for the testing procedure. Training procedure Groups of 20—40 experimental worms were placed in an individual ATA chamber while testing was done on individual animals, familiarization proceeded in groups. Feeding during the training period Worms were fed throughout the training period, in order to suppress fissioning and eliminate the possibility of differential starvation levels among worms.

Producing headless fragments Worms were decapitated 24 h after the final feeding, which occurred at the end of the familiarization session.

Bions Sources: The shaping of his paradigms Bions Sources: The shaping of his paradigms
Bions Sources: The shaping of his paradigms Bions Sources: The shaping of his paradigms
Bions Sources: The shaping of his paradigms Bions Sources: The shaping of his paradigms
Bions Sources: The shaping of his paradigms Bions Sources: The shaping of his paradigms
Bions Sources: The shaping of his paradigms Bions Sources: The shaping of his paradigms

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