Adoption of the Hyogo Framework for Action HFA — by countries has led to a paradigm shift in disaster risk management from emergency response to a comprehensive approach which also includes preparedness and preventive strategies to reduce risk. Early Warning Systems EWS are well recognized as a critical life-saving tool for floods, droughts, storms, bushfires, and other hazards.
As shown in Figure 1, the recorded economic losses linked to extreme hydro-meteorological events have increased nearly 50 times over the past five decades, but the global loss of life has decreased significantly, by a factor of about 10, thus saving millions of lives over this period. This has been attributed to better monitoring and forecasting of hydro-meteorological hazards and more effective emergency preparedness.
Good Practices and related guidance principles With a history of recurring disasters, a number of lower income countries such as Bangladesh and Cuba have already made dramatic strides in reducing mortality risk by developing effective early warning systems for tropical cyclones, storm surge and flooding. In Cuba, the government has made protection of lives their highest priority, investing significantly in the development of the Cuban Tropical Cyclone Early Warning System.
In Bangladesh, following the tropical cyclones and storm surges in and that led to nearly and casualties respectively, the government together with the Red Crescent Societies of Bangladesh implemented a Cyclone Preparedness Programme, whose effectiveness was well demonstrated by the much reduced death toll of less than 3 during the November super cyclone Sidr.
A detailed synthesis of the seven good practices revealed ten principles common to all, irrespective of the political, social, and institutional setting in each country. The ten principles are as follows:.
Functional Loss Assessment and Restoration Analysis to Quantify Indirect Consequences of Hazards
National and Regional Assessments related to MHEWS WMO DRR Services Division has conducted a number of assessments of WMO Members to document national capacities gaps and needs to contribute to all aspects of disaster risk reduction including risk assessment, risk reduction including sectoral planning, early warning systems and education and knowledge sharing. Link to buy. Economists , using cost-benefit analysis , have attempted to calculate an "optimal" balance of the costs and benefits between climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation.
Also, deciding what "optimal" is depends on value judgements made by the economist doing the study Azar, Some reviews indicate that policymakers are uncomfortable with using the results of this type of economic analysis.
Another type of analysis is based on a risk -based approach to the problem. It has been argued that adaptation could play an important role in climate policy , but not in an explicit trade-off against mitigation. Various attempts have been made to estimate the cost of adaptation to climate change. However, this estimate was criticised as underestimating costs of adaptation by a factor of 2 or 3, particularly as it did not take into account sectors such as tourism, mining, energy and retail.
The benefits of strong, early action on mitigation considerably outweigh the costs. According to Al Gore , writing in in Earth in the Balance ,  adaptation represented a "kind of laziness, an arrogant faith in our ability to react in time to save our skins". But for every day mitigation is delayed, the need for adaptation grows," which is problematic because "adaptation is more expensive and requires bigger government than mitigation.
The are some measure that seems like adaptation, but can lead, in fact, to more climate sensitivity and more climate change. For example, reliance on air conditioning gives relief from the heat, but can create an addiction to it, e. According to a report  released by Greenpeace USA in September , climate change denial and the campaigns designed to block adaptation measures grew mainly out of the s negotiations slated to develop a global agreement. During these talks, a number of lobby groups were established with an objective of developing doubt within policymakers and the media through the use of publications in the guise of true science.
This tactic, similar to those of large tobacco companies, was utilized by the lobby groups in the hopes of delaying action and blurring the lines between the valid scientific efforts to challenge climate change findings and those designed to merely undermine the credibility of the scientific community. This strategy feeds into the "uncertainty argument" and develops an impression of debate through references to the uncertainty of scientific findings that exist in any research model.
Additional tactics that the lobbyist groups have used include releasing non-stories manufactured from stolen emails and communications plans to develop more media coverage of the uncertainty argument. A book by the Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag on 'conflict-sensitive adaptation' sheds light on unintended damaging effects of climate adaptation measures. The book draws on findings from Africa and outlines how conflict-sensitive adaptation activities should look that are cognizant of the conflict-effects adaptation may have.
The authors provide a "Memorandum for Action on Adaptation for Peace and Stability" that outlines principles to support processes for adaptation and peace such as the establishment of peace and conflict assessments for adaptation programmes, mainstreaming climate change adaptation in conflict-prone contexts, applying conflict sensitive approaches or provisions to ensure participatory processes to design and implement adaptation measures.
Several countries have taken a lead in climate vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning. Their web sites contain reports, strategies, and tools which other countries can customize to their own situation. In addition to government and United Nations reports, an extensive research literature assesses options for response to global warming. Much of this literature addresses the potential economic costs associated with different strategies.
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Main article: Climate change adaptation in Nepal. Global warming portal Renewable Energy portal. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climatic Change. Semenov, A. Patwardhan, I. Burton, C. Magadza, M.
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